History Editar sección
As a traditional legend, a potter by the name of Kato Shirozaemon Kagemasa, also known as Toshiro, had supposedly gone to China with a Buddhist priest Dogen during the Joo era. Upon his return to Japan around 1227, he wandered through central Japan in search of clay similar to that used in his studies in China Toshiro eventually settled in an area known as Seto, located in modern Aichi prefecture. There he began producing pottery with modified Chinese techniques. <P>However, the connection between Japanese wares and Chinese models are more complicated than suggested in the legend. The developments of the kilns during the medieval period are thought to have taken place through the transformation of Sue ware technology. In the later half of the Heian period, Sue ware production came to an abrupt decline, with production now centralizing in the Owari, Mino, Bizen, and Omi provinces. Political collapse in the Heian period caused Sue ware potters to begin producing inexpensive wares such as tsubo (jars), kame (wide mouthed bowls), and suribachi (mortars or grinding). The Sue ware workshops began producing in characteristic regional blocks. All these led to the development of the kilns in the region known as the ‘Six Old Kilns’. The regional blocks consisted of Seto, Echizen, Tokoname, Bizen, Tamba, and Shigaraki. <P>The name Shigaraki describes a collective group of ceramic products made in a similar geographic area. It is said that Shigaraki ware is to have begun when tiles were constructed for the Emperor Shomu’s Shigaraki-no-miya Palace in 742. But more accepted evidence has shown where old kiln remains were found in the ruins of Shigaraki village dating back to the Kamakura period and early in the Muromachi period. It is suggested that Bizen potters traveled to Shigaraki and began producing works there because early Shigaraki wares appear to have been influenced by Bizen wares. Because of the embedded granules of quartz that give the wares a striking appearance, it is often hard to distinguish wares from both the Kamakura and Muromachi periods. <P>The town of Shigaraki was formed up of eighteen independent cities along the Daido River in the valley in the most southern top of Shiga prefecture. Three of the earliest kiln sites may date back to 1278. The cities were Kamagatani, Minami Matsuo in Nagano, and Goinoki in Koyama. These sites are suggested to have been the center of the Shigaraki industry in the old day. <P>Shigaraki kilns were used for private enterprises. Evidence was found that the wares were first produced to meet the demands of farmers, making mortars, water urns, bottles, and deep dishes. Fragments of such wares were found in the ruins of the old kiln sites. Simple, incised, and geometric lines are also evidence that the wares were produced for everyday agricultural pursuits.
Tea Ceremony Editar sección
<P>Tea drinking was common in Japan since early times. The general public drank tea out of wooden bowls at fairs and markets, and the upper classes made a guessing game with the drink. It was not until a tea master by the name of Murata Juko who wrote a letter discussing the disciples of the tea ceremony that Shigaraki wares were becoming more produced for the specific ceremony. Influenced by Zen Buddhist traditions, Juko reestablished that the tea ceremony should reflect the concept of wabi-suki, the belief of emphasizing simplicity, humility, and intense appreciation of the immediate experience. The natural appearance of this pottery helped reflect these principles in order to fit into the aesthetic of the tea ceremony atmosphere and to transform the manner in which Japanese viewed objects. <P>Beginning in 1520, after Juko’s emergence of the tea ceremony principles, other tea masters began ordering the production of certain styles of ceramic wares for the ceremonies. Takeno Sho-o was attracted to the Shigaraki ware and ordered to have wares with red glazes that ran into green and brown glazes to be produced. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, a tea master by the name of Rikyu, also patronized a certain appearance of wares, called Rikyu Shigaraki. These wares were made with a grey faience that imitated Korean wares. The Todo family came to power in 1635 and employed a tea master by the name of Kobori Enshu to supervise what would be later called Enshu Shigaraki ware.
Description Editar sección
<P>The local sandy clay from the bed of Lake Biwa that has a warm orange color, making it very durable characterizes Shigaraki ware. These ceramics have irregular contours and an archaic flavor. The technique shifted from reduction firing to oxidation firing, which allows free admission of air during the firing rather than limited air admission into the kiln. This resulted in oxides of iron that was then used for part of the coloring process. The allowance of free air is due to the type of ancient kiln, called an anagama kiln, which is used to fire Shigaraki ware. The term anagama is a Japanese term meaning “cave kiln”, meaning that these kilns were made in the side of hills. They are single chambered structures with a sloping tunnel shape. Wood is a needed fuel and constantly supplied in order to achieve temperatures high enough to fire the clay. Using this type of kiln also achieves the mineral glaze so popular with Shigaraki wares.
<P>Depending on the placement of the piece, the resulting coats of ash and minerals will vary. An oatmeal appearance is usually the result, with a greyish to a reddish-brown colorizing the body. Small impurities protrude, caused by embedded quartz partially fired. Covered with a thin layer of overrun yellowish-brown to a peach blossom red color glaze that crackle when fired also characterizes the stoneware ceramic. A light, transparent, or almost glass-like glaze with a bluish-green tint also appears on some Shigaraki wares. The glazes were dribbled over, or spray or spattered, over the ceramic. Unless allowed to gather in small pools, the glaze appears near invisible in most lighting, only visible when the piece is turned in hand. Underneath the wares are geta okoshi, the clog marks, where the clay rested on wooden supports inside the kiln before fired. Another characteristic of Shigaraki ware in the fingerprints left behind by the potters themselves.
Listed below are some characteristic examples of Shigaraki ware:
<P>Kame (wide mouthed jars)
1) This particular vessel has paddled marks about the shoulder seam. The shoulder is then carefully scraped horizontally, while the lower body scraped vertically. It has a gray, fine-grained core and a purplish-brown glossy surface. On the shoulder, the purplish-brown color is fused with yellow ash on the to create an olive-green glaze.
2) This vessel has a “well curb” mark in the shape of a number sign (#) in two places on the shoulder. The neck and rim are carefully defined. The body is scraped horizontally overall. The surface has an orange color, but has no glaze finish.
3) This example has a chevron in two places on the shoulder. The shoulder and neck are smoothed horizontally with a diagonal scraping at the shoulder line. The lower body is scraped horizontally and vertically. Fingerprints left behind from the potters occupy the base, along with two scars caused by sticks. The core is gray near the base and orange at the shoulder with a golden-orange surface.
4) This piece is smoothed horizontally all over with a trimmed edge. It has a light gray core with a red-brown surface. A thick coat of green glaze once occupied the surface, but has now decomposed.
5) This ware has a mark of three (san) lines on two places of the shoulder, that which is smoothed horizontally in a random manner. The lower body is scraped vertically and has an untrimmed edge. It has a light-gray core with an unglazed pinkish-biege surface.
6) This vessel has a mark with two (ni) lines in two places upon the shoulder. The shoulder is smoothed horizontally with diagonal scratching at the seam. The lower body is scraped horizontally and vertically with an untrimmed edge. The surface is comprised of a shiny rose-red color fused with yellow ash.
7) This piece has a mark similar to a plus sign representing the number ten (ju) in two places on the shoulder. It is smoothed both on the interior and the exterior. It also has a low edge trim. The surface is fine-grained with a red-orange color and has almost no ash on the exterior.
8) This particular vessel has a neck in which is smoothed horizontally and the body smoothed diagonally. There is scraping just above the base. The core is gray-white and fine-grained. The surface is decomposed with a gray-white color and bubbly ash-glaze.
9) This ware has a rim that is turned outward. The shoulder has been smoothed horizontally. The surface contains many small stones and is orange in color.
10) The flask has been smoothed horizontally on both the interior and the exterior. The lower edge is scraped. The core is a brick-red and contains many small stones. The surface is golden-biege in color.
References Editar sección
- Cort, Louise Allison. Shigaraki, Potters' Valley. Tokyo, New York, San Francisco: Kodansha International Ltd. 1979.
- Jenyns, Soame. Japanese Pottery. New York, Washington: Praeger Publishers, 1971.
- Miller, Roy Andrew. Japanese Ceramics. Tokyo: Toto Shuppan Company, Limited, 1960.
- Grove Dictionary of Art
- Miho Museum
Also See Editar sección
External Links Editar sección
Further Reading Editar sección
- Fired with passion : contemporary Japanese ceramics. Lurie, Samuel J. New York : Eagle Art Pub., 2006.
- The clay art of Adrian Saxe. Lynn, Martha Drexler. Los Angeles : Los Angeles County Museum of Art, c1993.